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Forensic Laboratory

State Forensic Science Laboratories
Mahanagar, Lucknow
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Earlier to establishment of Forensic Science Laboratory in U.P. the cases related to crime exhibits were examined in Scientific section of Criminal Investigation Department (C.I.D.), U.P.

In the year 1967 A detailed proposal superceding all the previous proposals to set-up a Forensic Science Laboratory in the State was submitted. Finally in February 1969, a Government order was issued to convert Scientific Section of Criminal Investigation Department into a Forensic Science Laboratory.

The U.P. Police Commission 1970-71 recommended to merge the Chemical Examiner's Laboratory at Agra with the Forensic Science Laboratory at Lucknow and to establish three full-fledged Forensic Science Laboratories at Agra , Lucknow , and Varanasi . A Govt. order was issued in the year 1979 for the merger of the Chemical Examiner's Laboratory, Agra and the Forensic Science Laboratory, Lucknow and to develop these two laboratories as full-fledged Forensic Science Laboratories, having all the modern equipments necessary for different divisions. It was also decided to establish a full-fledged Forensic Science Laboratory at Varanasi .

The following seven divisions were sanctioned in each of the laboratories at Lucknow and Agra .

  • Physics Division
  • Documents Division
  • Ballistics Division
  • Chemistry Division
  • Toxicology Division
  • Biology Division
  • Serology Division

A regular appointment of the Director, Forensic Science Laboratory was made for the first time in the year 1986 through Public Service Commission, U.P. The other posts were also advertised by the U.P. Public Service Commission in 1986. Meanwhile the basic equipments and some of the modern analytical instruments needed for different divisions of the laboratories were procured. The "nucleus" of each division in both the laboratories were established. The examination of exhibits in each division of both the laboratories began, for the first time, on 1st. April, 1987.

An Explosive division was also sanctioned for undertaking the examination of exploded material. This division also started functioning at Agra in the year 1987. It is expected to cater to the needs of all the districts in the State. In the year 1990, several posts were sanctioned by the Government for the newly created Medico legal, Lie-Detection, and Instrumental Analysis divisions in the Lucknow Laboratory and Instrumental Analysis, and Explosive divisions in the Agra Laboratory.

Field Units

The collection of important clue materials from the scenes of crime is of more importance than their examination in the laboratory. In most of the cases it may be possible to repeat the examination in the laboratory , but it is never possible to get relevant physical evidence from the scene of crime once it is disturbed. With this in view Field Units of the Forensic Science Laboratory in every district of the State were established . The Field Units have been kept under the operational control of the Sr. Superintendent of Police, /Superintendent of police in charge of the districts. Scientific Staff is posted in many districts to assist Investigating Officers.


  • Examination of crime related exhibits referred by Police, Judiciary.
  • To provide knowledge about role of Forensic Science and its application to crime investigation to police personnel Judiciary officers and related .
  • To provide scientific aids to investigation to I.Os. in investigation of crime and to help in collecting scientific evidences from scene of crime, its proper packing, sealing and forwarding to laboratory for examination.
  • To give training to personnel from police, and other Forensic Institutions.
  • To give lectures on Forensic Science to trainees in various Police , Judicial and other related institutions.

Organisational Structure Tree


Present activities

Depending upon their analytical needs, the case exhibits are examined in one or more divisions of the laboratories. The nature of examinations that can be undertaken in different divisions are briefly enumerated below:

Physics Division:

  • Comparative study of shoe/ Tyre marks and foot print received from scene of crime and suspect.
  • Examination and Restoration of Erased / concealed vehicle Identification numbers-VIN(chassis/ Engine number) and Identification No.(Number/Make) of Fire Arms .
  • Comparative Examination of building material like cement, Examination of Mortar and Concrete.
  • Examination of Tool/ Dye marks and metal.
  • Physical Examination of paint/ paint chips, glass, soil in hit and run accident cases etc.
  • Examination of wrapper, label , fake product in relation to copy right act.
  • Examination of Cut Marks on clothes in relative to source correspondence of weapon.
  • Examination and Cut End matching of electrical wire (Transmission Line) from scene of crime and suspect.
  • Physical matching/ Physical fitness (contour matching) of accidentally broken object.
  • Physical matching of object like- ash, glass fracture, Bangles, Shirt-Button, Cloth Matching, Plastic , Seal Matching, Paper, Fiber, Thread/ Strings, ropes etc.

Documents Division: Comparison of questioned writing, typewriting, printed matter, signatures with the known standards to establish genuineness or forgery; examination of documents for erasures, alterations obliterations and secret writing, decipherment of indented writings ; determination of relative age of the writings/ papers, examination of the charred documents etc.

Ballistics Division: Examination of fire arms for their service ability and to find out whether they come under the preview of Arms Act, determination of probable type or make of firearms from fired bullets/ cartridges, wads/pellets etc. to determine whether two or more bullets/ cartridge cases have been fired from the same or different fire arms, to establish the linkage of a bullet/ cartridge case with a particular firearms; to examine P.M.R./Injury report / X-ray plate/ clothes with a view to determine probable type of firearm; examination of a firearm to detect evidence of firing, examination firearms against the possibility of accidental discharge, estimation of distance of firing, identification of bullet holes/ shooter by detecting fire arm discharge residues; general examination for the reconstruction of a scene of firing etc. Examination of gunshot residues from firearms fired ammunition shot holes on clothes/ skin/ window glasses/cloth probable distance etc. Time and distance of firing in murder assault cases. Determination of the real or fake scene, suicidal or homicidal (murder) or accidental with the help of Reconstruction of Crime scene.

Chemistry Division: The Forensic Science Laboratories Uttar Pradesh under the Directorate of Forensic Science Services are multi-disciplinary laboratories in which the chemistry division receives samples for only chemical analysis. Facilities for carrying out the chemical analysis of NDPS(Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances), remnants of accelerants in arson cases and liquor cases. Examination of trap/ bribe cases & other miscellaneous cases are also carried out in this division. The details of expertise of the Chemistry division are given below :

  • Examination of opium/ crude opium, morphine/ opium alkaloids and its derivatives like heroin.
  • Examination of Cannabis samples and its derivatives.
  • Examination of Methaqualone, Amphetamine
  • Examination of Benzodiazepines such as Alprazolam, Diazepam.
  • Determination of alcoholic contents (ethyl alcohol) and adulteration in liquor samples.
  • Detection of inflammable material and their residues in arson case and its reconstruction and evaluation of arson sites.
  • Detection of dyes and other chemicals used in trap cases.
  • Identification of petroleum products and adulteration.
  • Examination of corrosive chemicals in acid throwing cases.

Toxicology Division: Examination of viscera, stomach wash, vomit, urine and blood etc. for poisons of vegetable origin (Dhatura, oleander, opium, madar aconite, nux vomica, etc.) inorganic salts (arsenic, copper sulphate, cyanides etc.) acids, drugs, alkaloids, pesticides ((DDT, BHC parathion, malathion, aldrin, zinc phosphide, aluminium phosphide, etc.) Alcohols (methyl & ethyl alcohol etc.) and all other types of poisons including powdered glass, etc.

Biology Division:

  • Examination of the biological fluids e.g. semen, saliva, sweat, urine, faecal matter etc.
  • Morphological examination of hair, wools and fibers.
  • Examination of paper pulp.
  • Identification of plant portions such as seeds, leaf fragments, flowers, pollen grains, wood, bark, twigs etc.
  • Morphological examination of skeletal remains Bones, Teeth etc for identification.
  • Identification of tissues of humen/ animal origin
  • Identification of diatoms and other micro-organism, mould, algae fungi etc.

Serology Division: Chemical, microscopically and spectroscopic examination for the detection of blood, serological examination of blood stains and other biological stains for their origin and grouping, examination of Barr bodies for sex determination from blood stains, enzyme grouping of blood stains.

Explosive Division: Examination of explosive substances and remnants of explosive devices after explosion; and examination of scenes of explosion.

Lie-Detection Division: Interrogation of suspected criminals and witnesses . 

DNA: DNA Finger printing is the latest technology to solve paternity dispute, individualization of criminals in murder ,Rape, other criminal cases and identification of person from the part of body.

Computer Forensic: Forensic data extraction from Mobile Phone, storage devices, CCTV Footage analysis.

Forensic Acoustic: In this division, Forensic Audio Analysis done by Spectrographic Analysis Method for Speaker Identification and examination of audio authenticity.

Library and Museum

At present a Library is established at Lucknow FSL. More than 3039 Scientific Books are available in Lucknow Library.

Foreign Journals:

S.No.Name of Journal
1. Forensic Science International .
2. Journal of Forensic Science.
3. Medicine Science the Law. 
4. The Police Journal .
5. Journal of Analytical Toxicology.
6. Australian Journal of Forensic Science.
7. Science and  Justice.
 8. Journal of Canadian Society .
9. Medico-Legal Journal.
10. Scientific American.

Indian Journals:

S.No.Name of Journal
1. Indian Academy of Forensic Science.
2. Indian Journal of Criminology.

Forensic Museum

A well equipped Museum is established at FSL Lucknow

Lectures/Training to personnel of other Institutions

The scientists of the Forensic Science Laboratory U.P. deliver lectures to the trainees of various organisations: for example; National Institute of Criminology & Forensic Sciences, M.H.A. (NICFS), Judicial Training Research Institute, U.P. (JTRI) , Police Training College (P.T.C.) Crime Branch CID, U.P. , , Nationalised Banks, Direct Taxes Regional Training institute, National Academy of Direct Taxes. Punjabi University Patiala, Trade Tax officer training Institute, Lucknow . Trainees from the National Institute of Criminology & Forensic Science , Govt. of India , and M. Sc. students of Sagar University , and Ambedker University Agra are attached to the FSLs U.P. from time to time for practical training. Trainees from various other organisations in the country such as Central Bureau of Investigation, Judicial Training and Research Institute, R.P.F. Academy , Police Training College Post graduate diploma in Forensic Anthropology .etc. visit the Forensic science Laboratory for practical orientation. Senior scientists of the laboratory also act as external examiners/paper setters for various courses in different Universities.

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